Location of Cave 4 at Qumran


Directory to the Dead Sea Scrolls Collection:

Introduction: The Story of the Scrolls
Texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls
Timetable of Dead Sea Scroll Scholarship
Resources for Further Study
Recommended Books


Return to:
Gnostic Society Library
Gnosis Archive









Available in the Bookstore:

The Dead Sea Scrolls - in several different editions


The Dead Sea Scrolls  by M. Wise


The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated  by F. Martinez


The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls,  by G. Vermes

The Gnostic Society Library

The Community Rule Scroll -- one of the seven original scrolls, attributed to an Essene community




Fragment A: height 17.7 cm (7 in.)
            length 3 cm (1 3/16 in.)
Fragment B: height 3.8 cm (1 1/2 in.)
            length 2.8 cm (1 1/8 in.)
Mur 4 Phyl
Copied first century-early second century C.E.
Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority (3) 
The command "And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes" (Deut. 6:8) was practiced by Jews from early times. In the Second Temple period the sages established that tefillin (phylacteries; amulets in Greek) would include four scriptural passages inscribed on parchment placed in box-like containers made of black leather. One of the phylacteries was worn one on the left arm and the other on the forehead. These served "as a sign upon your hand and as a symbol on your forehead that with a mighty hand the Lord freed us from Egypt" (Exodus 13:9, 16).

The Dead Sea region has now yielded the earliest phylactery remains, both of the leather containers and the inscribed strips of parchment. As a rule, phylacteries include the same four selections, two from the book of Exodus (Exod. 13:1-10; 13:11-16) and two from Deuteronomy (Deut. 6:4-9; 11:13-21). The scriptural verses were penned in clear minuscule characters on the elongated writing material, which was folded over to fit the minute compartments stamped into the containers.

Milik, J. T. "Textes Hebraux et Arameens." In Les Grottes de Murabba`at, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, II, pp. 80- 85. Oxford, 1961.

Yadin, Y. "Tefillin (Phylacteries) from Qumran [XQ Phyl 1-4])" (in Hebrew), Eretz-Israel 9 (1969):60-83 and plates.

English Translation of the Phylactery (Tefillin) Scroll

Mur 4 Phyl
Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority (3) 
Exod. 13:1-3
  1. (1)And spoke
  2. the Lord to
  3. Moses
  4. saying, (2)"Consecrate
  5. to Me every first-born
  6. the first issue of every womb of the
  7. Israelites, man
  8. and beast is Mine."
  9. (3)And Moses said to the people,
  10. "Remember this day
  11. on which you went (free)
  12. from Egypt, the house of bondage,
  13. how with a mighty hand
  14. the Lord freed you from it; no
  15. leavened bread shall be eater. (4)This day
Transcription by J. T. Milik; translation adapted from "Tanakh," pp. 103-4. Philadelphia, 1985.


The Dead Sea Scrolls Collection at The Gnostic Society Library

| Introduction | Texts | Timetable | Resources | Recommended Books |

| Gnostic Society Library | Gnosis Archive |