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The Gnostic Apostle Thomas:"Twin" of Jesus

Mani and the Pure Ones

The Gnostic Apostle Thomas: Notes, Chapter 11

General Sources
Boyce, Mary and Franz Grenet, A History of Zoroastrianism , vol. 3 (1991);
(2) A Reader in Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian (1975).
Burkitt, F. C. The Religion of the Manichees ( l925).
Gardner, Iain. The Kephalaia of the Teacher (1995).
Jonas, Hans. The Gnostic Religion ( l958) 206-237.
Klimkeit, Hans J. Gnosis on the Silk Road . (1993) 1-26.
Legge, Francis. Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity (1913) (One-volume reprint, 1964) vol. 2, 277-357.
Lieu, Samuel N. C. (1) Manichaeism in the Later Roman Empire (1985).
(2) Manichaeism in Mesopotamia and the Roman East (1994).
Rudolph, Kurt. Gnosis: Nature and History of Gnosticism Trans. and ed., R. M. Wilson, (1981) 326-42.
Widengren, Geo. Mani and Manicheism (Trans. Charles Kessler, 1965).


"Notoriously difficult to disentangle ..."
Gardner, xiii;
Wilhelm Brandt, "Elkasaites," Encyclopedia of Religionand Ethics (1912) vol 5, 262-69; Lieu (2) 81-4.

Mani in India
Lieu (1) 56-7;
Widengren, 28-9.

Missionary work of Mani and followers
Asmussen, 18-24;
Boyce (2), viii-ix [in China];
Drijvers, "The Persistence of Pagan Cults and Practices in Christian Syria," East of Byzantium (Washington, l982) 160-2;
Lieu (1), 60-90, 178-88;
Rudolph, 331-2;
Widengren, 33-7, 11-B7.

Basic Manichean myth
Jonas, 209-36;
Klimkeit, 8-20;
Lieu (1), 5-23;
Rudolph, 334-42.

Ascent of particles of light to the moon
Lieu (1), 15-6.

Five "members" or "dwellings" in the kingdom of Light
Burkitt , 19, 33n.;
Lieu (1), Epiphanius of Salamis. Panarion ("Medicine Chest"). Trans. Frank Williams. 2 vols. (1987)

Manichean use of Acts of Thomas and Gospel of Thomas
G. Bornkamm, New Testament Apocrypha , [NTA-1965] vol. 2, 427-42;
Drijvers, NTA- 1992, vol. 2.

Manichean missionary to Syria and Egypt
Drijvers, "The Persistence of Pagan Cults and Practices in Christian Syria," East of Byzantium : (Washington, D.C., l982) [regards Manichean Addai as possible missionary to Edessa];
Widengren, 117.

Mani's church hierarchy
Arthur Christensen, L'Iran sous les Sassanides , 2nd ed., (Copenhagen, l904) 193;
Klimkeit, 20-2.

Five Members of Mind and Five Buddhas of Light
Lieu (1), 208-9.

"My religion shall be propagated . . ."
W. B. Hennin, Sogdica . (London, 1940) 12;
Lieu, (1) 61.

"Lord, give me chastity . . ."
Augustine, Confessions . Chadwick trans. (1991).

Augustine disenchanted with Manicheism; disappointment in Faustus
"Reply to Faustus", Augustine Works , (vol.5, chap. xiii); Confessions , Book v, 107-8.

Augustine's conversion
Confessions , (Book viii).

"No revelry or bouts of drinking. . . ."
Romans 13:13 (Moffatt translation).

Acts of Thomas attacked by Augustine
Works , vol. 5 (Reply to Faustus, Book xxii).

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The Gnostic Apostle Thomas (c) 1997 Herbert Christian Merillat.