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The Gnostic Apostle Thomas:"Twin" of Jesus

Thomas and Edessa

The Gnostic Apostle Thomas: Notes, Chapter 14

General Sources

Abgar-Jesus correspondence
Bauer, Walter. (1)Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity (Trans. John E. Steely, 2nd ed., l97l), ch. 1;
(2) NTA-1991[New Testament Apocrypha (Rev. ed., 1991)] vol. 1, 38-44.
Drijvers, H. J. W. "Studies in Early Syriac Christianity," Second Century 2 (1982)157-73, reprinted in East of Antioch (1984).
Eusebius of Caesarea. The History of the Church (Trans. G. A. Williamson, Penguin edition, l965) 65-70.
Howard, George B. The Teaching of Addai (1981).
Koester, Helmut. "Gnomai Diaphori," 38 Harvard Theological Review (1965) 279-318. Reprinted in Orthodoxy, Heresy and Schism in Early Christianity (1993) 208-36.
Segal, J. B. Edessa ( l970) 62.

Beginnings of Nestorianism
Atiya, Aziz S. A History of Eastern Christianity ( l968).
Attwater, Donald. The Christian Churches of the East ( l947) vol. 2.
Badger, George Percy. The Nestorians and Their Rituals 2 vols. (London, l852).
Maclean, A. J. "Nestorianism," History of Religion and Ethics 9: 323-332.
Moosa, Matti. "Nestorian Church," Encyclopedia of Religion (1987) vol. 10, 369-72.
Vine, Aubrey R. The Nestorian Churches (London, 1937).


Developing tradition of apostolic leadership
Bauer, NTA-1965, vol 2.

Abgar-Jesus correspondence
See above.

Lists of the Seventy(-two) disciples of Jesus
Bruce M. Metzger, New Testament Studies (1980) 30-2.

Bauer's hypothesis
Bauer (1), 35;
(2) 439-40.

Koester's views
Koester, 296-7.

Other suggested explanations for the Abgar-Jesus legend
Drijvers, 159-62 [Suggests that the name of "Addai," a Manichean missionary in Edessa, was bestowed retroactively on the fictitious emissary from Thomas, as an anti-Manichean tactic];
Murray 5-9 [Suggests that legend of Addai was imported from Nisibis, east of Edessa, which may have been the first site of Christianity in Mesopotamia];
Segal, 67-9.

Thomas regarded by Nestorians as their founding apostle
Atiya, 261.

Traditions relating to Thomas accepted by Nestorians
Atiya, 242-5;
Badger vol.1, 136;
Metzger, 27-29.

Nestorian creed
Atiya, 254;
Mclean, 327;
Budge, 20-30.

Nestorians in Edessa and Nisibis
Atiya, 249-51, 457;
Vine, 37.

Authority of Patriach of the East
Atiya, 253;
Stephen Gero, "The See of Peter in Babylon," East of Byzantium , 45-51.

"It is our pleasure that all nations . . ."
(Edict of Theodosius, 380) Creeds, Councils and Controversies (1966) p. 160.

Bishop Rabbula
Segal, 91-4; 132-35.

Competing lineages of bishops for Syriac-speaking world
J. P. Asmussen, "Christians in Iran," Cambridge History of India , vol. 8 (1983) 926-7;
W. Cureton, Ancient Syrian Documents ( l934);
Howard, 103-5;
Murray, 5;
George Milne Rae, The Syrian Church in India (l892) 27-38;
Segal, 79-81

"They even call us Palutians . . . ."
Murray, 5, 11;
Segal, 81.

Edessa under Muslims and Crusaders
Segal, chap. 5.

Shrine of Thomas converted into a stable
Ibid., 250.

"The news was carried throughout Christendom."
Ibid., 247.

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The Gnostic Apostle Thomas (c) 1997 Herbert Christian Merillat.