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The Gnostic Apostle Thomas:"Twin" of Jesus

Go Ye Into All the World

The Gnostic Apostle Thomas: Notes, Chapter 1

[NTA = New Testament Apocrypha: Hennecke ed. 1963-5; Schneemelcher ed. 1991-2].

General sources:
Apocryphal Acts of individual apostles (general):
Bauer, E., in NTA- l965, vol. 2, 35-87, 167-188.

Acts of Judas Thomas, translations and commentaries:
Bornkamm, G., in NTA-1965, vol. 2, 425-531.
Drijvers, H. W. J., in NTA-1992, vol. 2, 322-411.
Klijn, A. F J. The Acts of Thomas (Leiden, l962).
James, Montague. The Apocryphal New Testament (Oxford, l924) 364-437.
LaFargue, Michael. Language and Gnosis: The Opening Scenes of the Acts of Thomas (Philadelphia, 1983).
Riddle, M. B., in Ante-Nicene Fathers (Reprint, Grand Rapids, 1981) vol. 9, 535-54; Wright, William. Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles ( London, l87l; reprint Amsterdam, l968) 146-298.

[I have generally used the English translation of the Greek version by James but have sometimes taken into account translations of the Greek version by Bornkamm (German, translated into English by R. McL. Wilson) or Drijvers, and of the Syriac versions by Wright and . Klijn (who includes extensive passages from the Greek translation when there are striking differences). The quotations are in contemporary, not Jacobean, English.]


"Go ye into all the world..."
Mark 16:15.

Evolution of the Great Commission
See, e.g., Bart D. Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture (Oxford, 1993) 232;
Alfred Loisy, The Origins of the New Testament Trans, L. P. Jacks (London, 1950) 140;
B. M. Metzger, The Canon of the New Testament ( Oxford, 1987) 270, and A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (London, 1971) 122-6;
Attention to Acts of the Apostles in second century. Ibid., 128;
Richard N. Longenecker, "The Acts of the Apostles," Expositor's Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids, 1981) vol. 9, 239;
Hans von.Campenhausen, The Formation of the Christian Bible (Eng. trans., Philadelphia, l973) 194.

Thomas's appearances in John
ll:16 ("Thomas, which is called Didymus");
14:5-6; 20:24 ("Thomas, . . .called Didymus");
21:2 ("Thomas called Didymus").
Elaine Pagels. The Origin of Satan (New York, 1995)72-3.
Gregory J. Riley. Resurrection Reconsidered: Thomas and John in Controversy (1995).

Possible origins of name Judas Thomas
John Dart, The Jesus of Heresy and History (San Francisco, l988) 139-43;
H. J. W. Drijvers "The Persistence of Pagan Cults and Practices in Christian Syria," East of Byzantium: ( Washington, l982) 15-16;
John J. Gunther, "The Meaning and Origin of the Name 'Judas Thomas'." Le Muscon, 93 (1980) 113-148;
A. F. J.Klijn, "Christianity in Edessa and the Gospel of Thomas," Novum Testamentum 14 (1972), 70-77, and "John XIV 22 and the Name Judas Thomas," in The Future of Early Christianity (Minneapolis, 1991)91-96;
Helmut Koester "Gnomai Diaphori", 38 Harvard Theological Review (1965) 279-318, Reprinted in Orthodoxy, Heresy and Schism in Early Christianity ( New York, 1993).

Difficulty of sorting out the family of Jesus
John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew, vol 1 (New York, 1991) 316-32.

Origin and nature of apocryphal Acts of individual apostles
W. Schneemelcher and K. Schaferdick, in NTA-1965, vol 2, 167-188; Klijn, 18-20.

Widows as authors of apocryphal Acts?
Stevan L. Davies, The Revolt of the Widows (Carbondale, 1980)108.

"Most important" Ibid., 177.

Acts of Paul
W. Schneemelcher, in NTA-1965, vol. 2, 322-325.

Differences between Syriac and Greek versions of AJT; alterations to "catholocize"
Bauer, 433;
Drijvers; Klijn, 13-14 , 91, 177-79.
[The Ethiopic version makes Peter the guide of Thomas in the early stages of his journey, thus giving Peter precedence: E. A. Wallis Budge, The Contendings of the Apostles, Trans. from Ethiopic (London, l935) 319-20.]

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The Gnostic Apostle Thomas (c) 1997 Herbert Christian Merillat.