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The Gnostic Apostle Thomas:"Twin" of Jesus

Barlaam, Josaphat, and Mithra

The Gnostic Apostle Thomas: Chapter 21

General Sources

Barlaam and Josaphat
Budge, E. A. Wallis. Baralam and Yewasef (Trans. from Ethiopic, l923) vol. 2.
The Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine (Eng. trans.,1969) 720-34.
Hirsh, John C. Barlam and Iosaphat 1986).
Sonet, Jean. Le Roman de Barlaam et Josaphat ( l949).

Beck, Roger. Planetary Gods in Mysteries of Mithra (1988).
Campbell, Leroy A. Mithraic Iconography and Ideology (1968).
Cumont, F. The Mysteries of Mithra Trans. T. McCormack (2d Ed,1910).
Legge, Francis. Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity (l9l3) vol. 2, 224-76.
Mithraic Studies . Ed. John R. Hinnells (1975) 2 vols. (Proceedings of the lst International Congress of Mithraic Studies)
Ulansey, David. Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries (1989)


Asaghosa's Buddha-Karita
Muller Sacred Books, xxix, 1-201;
Lucien Stryk, World of the Buddha . (1968)11-46.

Barlaam and Josaphat
Wallis Budge, vol. 2;
Hirsh; Sonet.

B. and J. made saints
Sonet, 56.

Ethiopic versions of Acts of Judas Thomas
The Contendings of the Apostles , trans. E.A. Wallis Budge( l935).

Kekelidze's hypothesis
D. M. Lang, The Wisdom of Balahvar ;
Ethical and Religious Classics of East and West, No. 20 (London, 1957) 27-8.

Critics of Cumont
John R. Hinnells, "Reflections on the bull-slaying scene," Mithraic Studies , vol 2, 290-312;
Beck; Ulansey.

Astrological symbols in Mithraic cult art
Beck [planetary gods] 73;
Jackson, "The Meaning and Function of the Leontocephaline in Roman Mithraism," Numen 32 (1985) 17-45;
Ulansey [zodiacal star map].

Origen, "There is a ladder . . ."
Beck, 73;

Mithraism at Dura-Europos
Campbell, 181-3.

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The Gnostic Apostle Thomas (c) 1997 Herbert Christian Merillat.