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The Gnostic Apostle Thomas:"Twin" of Jesus

Land of Five Rivers

The Gnostic Apostle Thomas: Notes, Chapter 5

Land of Five Rivers (Punjab)
[NTA-1965 = New Testament Apocrypha , ed. Edgar Hennecke (Eng. ed., 1963-65), 2 vols.]
[NTA-1992 = ed. W. Schneemelcher (Rev. ed., 1991-2), 2 vols.]

General sources

Acts of Judas Thomas, translations and commentaries
Bornkamm, Gunther.
NTA-1965, vol. 2, 425-531.
Drijvers, H. J. W.
NTA-1992, vol 2, 322-411.
James, Montague. The Apocryphal New Testament ( l924) 364-437.
Klijn, A. F. J. The Acts of Thomas (1962).
LaFargue, Michael, Language and Gnosis (1983).
Riddle, M. B., Trans. Acts of the Holy Apostle Thomas , Ante-Nicene Fathers (Reprint, 1981) vol. viii, 535-54.
Wright, William. Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles ( l87l; reprint l968) 146-298.

Taxila
Marshall, J. H. Taxila 3 vols. ( Cambridge, 1951) vol. 3, 1-33, 60.

Dominant groups in northwestern India
Cambridge Ancient History (C.A.H.), vol. 11, chap.3; vol. 12, chap. 4.
Cambridge History of India (C.H.I.), vol. i, chap. 23.
Frye, R. N. The Heritage of Persia (1963)177f.
History and Culture of the Indian People (H.C.I.P.)(1951) vol 2.
Marshall, 12-33.

Gundaphorus in history
Basham, A. L. Studies in Indian History and Culture (1964) 99-124;
C.A.H., vol. xi, 117;
C.H.I., vol. l, 520-5, 563-85;
H.C.I.P., vol. 2, 119, 128-3.
Debevoise, N. C., A Political History of Parthia ( l968) 63-8.
Marshall, 27-9.
Rosenfield, J. M. Dynastic Arts of the Kushans ( l967)

_______________

"Winner of Glory,"
Marshall, 28;
Rosenfield, 199.

Earthquake in Taxila
Marshall, 28-9.

"Fellowship of the male."
Harold W. Attridge, "Masculine Fellowship' in the Acts of Thomas ", Gnosticism, Judaism, and Egyptian Christianity . ( ed. Birger A.Pearson,1990) 406-13.

Differences between Syriac and Greek versions of AJT; alterations to "catholocize"
Klijn,13-5, 91, 177-79;
Borkmann, 433-7;
Drijvers, 323-4.
[The Ethiopic version makes Peter the guide of Thomas in the early stages of his journey, thus giving Peter precedence: The Contendings of the Apostles . E. A. Wallis Budge,( l935) 319-20].
Acts of Peter , chap. V.
James, p. 308;
Borkmann, 285.

"A special baptism"
Morton Smith, Clement of Alexandria and the Secret Gospel of Mark (1973);
Marvin W. Meyer, "The Youth in the Secret Gospel of Mark," Semeia 49 (1990) 129-53.

Five members of the mind
James, 376, and note by F. C. Burkitt, 378;
Borkmann, 456-7;
Klijn, 211, 216-7.

Five members among Manicheans
F. C. Burkitt, The Religion of the Manichees (1925) 19-33;
Samuel N. C. Lieu, Manichaeism in Mesopotamia and the Roman East (1994) 8-9, 16-8, 208-9;
Jacques-.Menard, L'evangile selon Thomas . (1975) 107;
Geo Widengren, Mani and Manicheism , (1965). 21-2, 46.

Five trees in Paradise
Gospel of Thomas, Saying 19: NHL-1988 [Nag Hammadi Library in English , ed. James Robinson (3rd ed., 1988)] 128 ;
Menard, 107; BR>Pearson, 120-1;
H.-C. Puech, Sur l'Evangile selon Thomas (En Quete de la Gnose , vol 2) (l978) 98-103.

Manicheans and fivesomes
See, e.g., Iain Garnder, The Kephalaia of the Teacher (1995).

Five skandhas and five Buddhas of Light
W. B. Henning, Sogdica ( 1940) 3; Lieu (1985), 208.

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The Gnostic Apostle Thomas (c) 1997 Herbert Christian Merillat.