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The Gnostic Apostle Thomas:"Twin" of Jesus


The Gnostic Apostle Thomas: Notes, Chapter 9

General Sources

Blackman, E.C. Marcion and His Influence ( l948).
Campenhausen, Hans von. The Formation of the Christian Bible (Eng. trans., 1973) 147-67.
Harnack, Adolph von. Marcion (1924 ); (Eng. trans., John E. Steely and Lyle D. Bierma, 1990).
Hoffman, P. Joseph. Marcion (1984).
Knox, John. Marcion and the New Testament (l942).
Legge, Francis. Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity (2 vols. 1913). vol. 2, 203-23 (one-volume reprint, 1964).
Tertullianus. Adversus Marciones (Evans trans., 1972).
Wilson, Robert Smith. Marcion ( l933).


"[N]o other religious personality . . . can rival [Marcion] in significance."
Harnack, 13.

Life of Marcion
Harnack 15-20;
Wilson 45, 49-50.

Experiences of Paul as evangelizer
E.g., Elaine Pagels, The Gnostic Paul (l975).

Harnack as Marcion's advocate

Marcion's rejection of Old Testament
Blackman, 113-24;
Campenhausen, 147-152;
Harnack, 21-4; 133-8;
Pelikan, 7-17.

"[T]he creator of evils, lustful for war. . . ."
Evans, in Tertullianus, x;
Jardoslav Pelikan, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (l00-600) (1971) 74.

"No one pours fresh wine. . . . "; "corrupt tree;"
Luke 5:36 and 6:43.

"The ineffable newness of the gospel. . . ."
Pelikan, 78.

Teachings of Marcion
Blackman, 66-112;
Evans in Tertullianus, xii-xvi;
Grant , 33-47;
Harnack, 65-92;
Hoffman; Pelikan 72-81;

Marcion's scriptures
Blackman 42-54;
Campenhausen, 153-165;
Evans; Harnack, 25-63;
Legge, 203-23;
Pelikan, 72-81;
Tertullianus (Introduction by Ernest Evans).

Epiphanius gives a detailed list of changes in Luke and Paul
Panarion , 42.8-42.16 (Amidon trans., 1990)147-70.

Omission of the Acts of the Apostles
Richard N. Longenecker, Expositor's Bible Commentary , vol. 9, 239.

Panarion , 17.4-9 (Amidon trans., 82).

Valentinian use of the Gospel of John and Paul's writings
Elaine Pagels, The Gnostic Paul (l975);
The Johannine Gospel in Gnostic Exegesis (1975).

"We do discuss wisdom . . ."
I Corinthians 2:6-7 (Moffatt translation).
Pagels translation, Gnostic Paul , 59: "For the psychic does not receive the things of the spirit of God: they are foolishness to him, and he cannot know them, because they are pneumatically discerned. The pneumatic on the other hand, discerns all things, but himself is discerned by no one."
King James Version: "But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are not spiritually discerned. But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet he himself is judged of no man."

"Be strong in the Lord. . . ."
Ephesians 6:10-12 (Moffatt trans.)

Tertullian on Marcion's contempt for the natural world
Pelikan, 73;

Marcionites after 2nd century
Blackman, 3-4;
Stephen Gero, "With Bauer on the Tigris" Nag Hammadi, Gnosticism, and Early Christianity , ed.Hedrick and Hodgson (1986) , 289 ["the peak of Marcionite presence and influence in Persian territory should be dated to the 5th and 6th centuries."];
Hoffman 33;
R. S. Wilson, 62.

Marcion's reliance on apostle Paul
Blackman, 103-12;
Campenhausen, 153-5;
Harnack, 21 ff.;
Hoffman 232 ;
Tertullianus,92, 57-58, 110.

Marcion's influence on Christian canon
Blackman 33;
Campenhausen, 165-81;
Harnack, 123-132;
Knox, 25 ff.

Antitheses as non-Greek
Gerhard May, "Marcion in Contemporary Views: Results and Open Questions," Trans. David Dowdey.
Second Century , 6 (1987-8) 129-51 Reprinted, Orthodoxy, Heresy and Schism in Early Christianity , 239-81.

Christians known as Marcionites
J. P. Asmussen, "Christians in Iran," Cambridge History of Iran, (1983) vol. 3, 924-948, 930;
Blackman, 4; Panarion , 42.1.2. (Amidon trans.) 144 ;

"[T}he most barbarous and melancholy thing. . . ."
Tertullianus, 5.